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I may not be correct in everything, and have footnotes where I have doubts. I'm not here referring to pronunciation - there are plenty of pronunciation guides out there and this is mostly for my reference.

The verb 'To Be' is essential for basic Welsh. Unlike English, Welsh doesn't have any distinction between, for example, 'I walk', and 'I am walking'; you just say 'I am walking' in Welsh and context will indicate what you mean.

Welsh verbs conjugate1 - that is the basic form changes depending on the object/person you are referring to. Like many languages, being one of the most common verbs, it's also irregular.

The table below shows the present tense statement, question and negative for the verb. This actually uses a shortened form of the verb: technically 'I am' would be 'Rwdw i', rather than as given here, but it's commonly shortened to 'dw i'.


Table showing how Welsh verb 'Bod' conjugates in present tense for statement, question and negative
Present EnglishPresent WelshQuestion EnglishQuestion WelshNegative EnglishNegative WelshYes/No3
I amDw iAm I ... ?Dw i ... ?I am notDw i ddimydw/nac ydw
You are (informal)Wyt tiAre you ... ?Wyt ti ... ?You are notWyt ti ddim 
He isMae eIs he ...?Ydy e ... ?2
Oes e ... ?
He is notDydy e ddim2
Does e ddim
ydy/nac ydy
oes/nac oes
She isMae hiIs she ... ?Ydy hi ... ?2
Oes hi ... ?
She is notDydy hi ddim2
Does hi ddim
ydy/nac ydy
oes/nac oes
We areDyn niAre we ... ?Dyn ni ... ?We are notDyn ni ddim 
You are (formal/plural)Dych chiAre you ... ?Dych chi ... ?You are notDych chi ddimydyn/nac ydyn
They areMaen nhwAre they ... ?Ydyn nwh ... ?They are notDydyn nhw ddimydyn/nac ydyn


1. Wikipedia: conjugation
2. Never sure on the different between Ydy and Oes. Will have to look this up. I believe the oes version refers to an indefinite item rather than a specific thing/person
3. Yes/No in Welsh depends on the question. In this case you'd say 'I am, I'm not', etc, depending on the question being asked. I'm not 100% sure of the yes/no forms in this case and need to research that too
This entry was originally posted at http://draigwen.dreamwidth.org/632836.html. Please comment there using OpenID.
 
 
 
 
 
 
At [personal profile] afuna's suggestion, I'm going to post my welsh stuff here and tag it so you can filter it out if you prefer.

I've got a number of tags you can choose to follow or ignore at your leisure:

'welsh' - this will have anything generic about the fact I'm learning welsh
'dysgu cymraeg' - all entries with any specific welsh learning will be here
'cymraeg' - will be for any entries specifically written in welsh
'welsh grammar' - anything talking about welsh grammar
'welsh vocab' - for welsh vocab

All posts will be cross-posted to draigwen as well.

This entry was originally posted at http://draigwen.dreamwidth.org/632774.html. Please comment there using OpenID.
 
 
 
 
 
 

Mae fy mlog i wedi symud. Mae fy erthylgau i yn ar http://blogs.draigwen.com/articles/category/cymraeg nawr. Bydda i'n trio i ysgrifennu yna mwy!

 
 
 
 
 
 

Dw i ddim wedi ysgriffenu yn fy mlog ers sawl misoedd. Mae gwersau gymraeg yn braidd gorffen. Byddwn ni'n gorffen a Nadolig. Dyn ni wedi dysgu llawer o pethau, bydda i'n ceisio i defnyddio rhyw pethau yma.

Mae diddordeb gyda fi mewn cerddoriaeth. Dw i'n hoffi llawer o enres: rock, folk, metal, hyd yn oed classical! Gwelais i Alice Cooper, Motorhead a Joan Jett and the Blackhearts dwy wythnos yn ôl. Buodd Joan Jett yn mawr, buodd Motorhead yn cryf a buodd Alice Cooper yn siomedig. Gwnes i fwynau y cyngerdd.

Mae fy ffefryn grŵp yn The Who. Dw i'n dwlu ar Juliet Turner, Jewel a Counting Crows hefyd.

Ces i dechrau dysgu canu y gitâr. Dw i'n dwlu arno fe. Dysgais i naw cord a dw i'n dysgu tair cân - Hit Me Baby One More Time, One Hand In My Pocket, ac I Still Haven't Found What I'm Looking For.

 
 
 
 
 
 
Dw i wedi bod i Gaerdydd heddiw - roedd hi'n braf. Aethon ni siopa. Prynais i gormod o dillad: dau jîns, tair blows, pump pants, chwech socsen! Hefyd, prynais i tri cryno ddisg (dau The Who, un Seether). Gwariais i gormod o arian! Buodd e'n diwrnod dda ond ddrud!
 
 
 
 
 
 
Byddwn ni siopa heddiw, os dydy hi ddim yn diflas. Gobeithio bydd hi'n braf! Rhaid iddo Rat brynu dillad. Dylwn i brynu dillad hefyd. Dw i eisiau jîns newydd. Hoffwn i brynu y jîns o Fat Face neu Animal. Dw i eisiau jîns dda iawn. Dw i'n meddwl bod bydda i'n gallu brynu jîns dda o yna. Baswn i'n hoffi mynd i Primark hefyd. Dillad rhad! Wel, bydda i'n gweld.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mis diwethaf, aethon Rat a fi i cyngerdd yn Swansea.  Gwelon ni "The Who".  Ro'n i'n meddwl bod hi'n wych.  Dw i'n hoffi miwsig byw (live music?).  Dw i'n hoffi Roger Daltrey hefyd; dw i'n aflonyddu gyda e ers yn gyngerdd.

Mae bwyta yn cyrraedd...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Heddiw, dysgais i pa rhoddi barnau.  (I have no idea if that says what I want it to say).

Dw i'n meddwl bod Thomas Cook yn ofnadwy.  Dw i'n credu dylai pob busnes cael polisi dwyieithog.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Mae dosbarth Cymraeg wedi dechrau. Dw i eisiau ysgrifennu yng Nghymraeg eto.

Es i i gynhadledd dydd Mawrth. Roedd hi'n yng Nghanolfan Dylan Thomas yn Abertawe. Yn y gynadledd ro'n ni siarad [about] technoleg dwyieithog. Roedd hi'n diddorol. Dw i'n angerddol [about] y broblemau dwyieithog a technoleg.
 
 
 
 
 
 
Roedd rhaid i Rat fynd i'r ysbyty heddiw. Mae "tail bone" toredig gyda fe.

Bydda i'n siopa arlein heno neu yfory; rhaid i ni brynu bwyd. Dw i eisiau coginio llawer o fwyd wythos nesaf. Dw i ddim eisiau "take out". Gwnaeth Rat yr "sticky toffee pudding" neithiwr.

Gobeithio bydda i'n mynd i'r sinema yfory. Dw i wedi bod i'r sinema am wythnosau. Dw i eisau gweld "Pirates of the Carribean II". Ar ôl i mi weld yr ffilm bydda i siopa; byddwn ni'n prynu pethau am y tŷ.